A new type of ultrasonic cell sorting technology and pharmaceutical use

Researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) have developed a new method of cell sorting using ultrasound technology to reduce cell damage compared to other methods. The research was published online in the October 16 issue of AppliedPhysics Letters. In many biomedical research fields, including genetic engineering, stem cells, and regenerative medicine, it is an important process to isolate selected cells from a mixed population.
In recent years, various methods have been developed to isolate living cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and limiting dilution are the two most common methods. However, both methods require that the cells be dissociated from the culture prior to sorting, which may stress the cells or cause programmed cell death, especially sensitive cells such as stem cells and primary cells. Therefore, it is best to develop a stress-free technique for gentle cell separation while allowing cells to remain attached to the culture. At the same time, people are constantly developing chip technology to separate adherent cells using microrelets that can be released on the chip.
The author of the article is Associate Professor XiaoningJiang from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NCSU. He said that the work stemmed from his conversation with a biological engineer, Nancy Allbritton. Allbritton asked if he could use ultrasound to safely and quickly release cells. Previously, Allbritton's team used lasers to separate cells. Although this method is useful for micropallets less than 500m500m, the strength required to move larger micropallets can cause severe damage and cell loss. Then, Allbritton's team tried to use mechanical methods. Although this technique preserves cellular function, it is too time consuming. Finally, using ultrasound, Allbritton and Jiang separated the monolithic micropallet chips, and the average cell survival rate was 92%. This is a significant improvement over the 50% of other fast technologies. However, when processing the chip, the focused ultrasound must be transferred from one micropallet chip to another. To improve the efficiency of the system, the team is developing a chip-to-spindle converter that can be focused on a single micropallet chip.
In this article, the research team introduced that their system can use ultrasonic waves to gently lift the micropallet chip. Micropallet chips are platforms for cell growth, but lifting them away from the surrounding medium has been a challenge. Other cell sorting techniques can cause large cell losses. According to reports, the average cell survival rate of this new method is 92%. This system can greatly improve the application of the chip.
For example, a cell chip is filled with cancer cells from multiple patients and then treated with a specific anticancer drug. Those cells whose growth is inhibited are quickly and efficiently detached from the chip, so researchers can understand the genetic variants associated with drug sensitivity. Ultimately, this system will be a core part of automated lab-on-a-chip technology, enabling continuous analysis of cells on multiple matrices without the need for manual intervention.
Four applications of ultrasonic pulverization in medical use
In addition to the cleaning effect of ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic pulverization in medical use is more widely used. There are many factors affecting the smashing and the technical requirements are high. This is undeniable.
Ultrasound in medical pharmacy mainly has the following uses:
First, the cosmetic dispersion of cosmetics wants to penetrate deep into the skin layer, let the skin absorb better, play the role and effectiveness of drugs. The extraction of the essence is very important. In order to better extract the essence of the drug and the micronization of the particles, the production cost is saved, and the components are dispersed and emulsified. Ultrasonic emulsification is the most ideal method. By ultrasonic dispersion, fine particles of oil such as wax and paraffin emulsified or lotion can be dispersed without using an emulsifier. Paraffin particles dispersed in water can be up to 1um in diameter.
Second, the alcoholization of wine - urging Chen technical chemical changes is also the formation of acid, is the main controlling factor of wine. In order to further esterify the acid, the ester is involved in the association of ethanol and water. The freshly brewed wine contains sterol, which has a spicy taste. It takes a long time to resolve. This slow change is called alcoholization. Ultrasonic treatment with a power of 1.6KW and a frequency of 17.5-22KHZ for 5-10min can shorten the ripening time of wine by 1/3 to 1/2.
Third, in the extraction of biological nano (chemical synthesis) ultrasonic chemical reaction, the key role is the cavitation effect of sound waves. During the irradiation of ultrasonic waves, the formation of cavitation bubbles, growth and collapse will occur in the liquid. When the cavitation bubble collapses, a strong pressure pulse is created that produces many unique properties, such as producing high temperatures of up to 5000K and pressures of greater than 200 MPa. This is similar to the principle of ultrasonic cleaning. This is also the source of energy for ultrasonic chemical synthesis, which can be used to synthesize nanoparticles on the surface of some special powders.
Fourth, the role of ultrasonic pharmacy
1, preparing a vaccine - after killing cells or germs by means of ultrasonic dispersion, and then making a vaccine by an appropriate method;
2, herbal extracts - the use of ultrasonic dispersion to destroy plant tissue, accelerate the solvent penetration of tissue, improve the extraction rate of active ingredients of Chinese herbal medicine. For example, all alkaloids in the bark of the cinchona can be invaded by the general method for more than 5 hours, and the ultrasonic dispersion can be completed in half an hour.
3. Preparation of Suspension - A solid drug is dispersed in an aqueous solution containing a surfactant under ultrasonic cavitation and vigorous agitation to form an oral or intravenous suspension of about 1 um. Examples are "intravenous camptothecin suspension", "liver contrast agent", "barium sulfate suspension".
4. Dispersion of pharmaceutical substances for injection - mixing phospholipids with cholesterol by mixing with an appropriate method in an aqueous solution, and dispersing by ultrasound, smaller particles can be obtained for intravenous injection.

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